Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34, issue no. 2 (2006)
Publisher: Indian Society for Plantation Crops, Kasaragod - 670 124, Kerala, India
table of contents
K. S. Ananda; H. L. Sreenath: DNA isolated by two-step nuclei isolation method is suitable for fingerprinting of Coffea and Psilanthus species by different methods. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 75-82 (2006).
Abstract: Coffee is a very important plantation crop and DNA fingerprinting has several applications in this crop. Reliability of a fingerprinting method largely depends on the quality of the DNA used. In the present study, we compared one-step direct and two-step nuclei isolation methods for DNA yield and suitability of the extracted DNA for RAPD, ISSR, SSR and AFLP fingerprinting in 3 representative species of Coffea and Psilanthus. In all the 3 species tested, two-step nuclei isolation protocols resulted in 6 to 8 times higher DNA yield compared to one-step direct DNA isolation protocols. The quality of DNA extracted by one-step direct DNA isolation protocols was adequate for simple PCR-based fingerprinting methods like RAPD, ISSR and SSR. However, the quality of the same DNA was not adequate for the complex AFLP technique. Among the five DNA isolation protocols tested, two-step nuclei isolation protocol with MATAB as detergent yielded the highest DNA. Also, the DNA isolated in this protocol was suitable for different fingerprinting methods ranging from simple PCR-based methods like RAPD, ISSR and SSR to complex AFLP method which involves restriction digestion and adapter ligation followed by two rounds of PCR amplification.
Keywords: coffee; Coffea; Psilanthus; DNA isolation; DNA fingerprinting; RAPD; ISSR; SSR and AFLP
K. V. Shivakumar; D. Venkataramanan: Influence of chemical ripeners on uniform ripening of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) berries. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 83-86 (2006).
Abstract: In India, coffee (Coffea arabica L.) is mainly confined to southern states and to a limited scale it is also cultivated in eastern parts. High quality coffee is picked by hand and often picking will be done four to five times during the season. Uneven ripening in coffee results in inferior quality and less yield. To induce the uniform ripening, better quality and yield, chemical ripeners are being employed. In the present study, Besmonac Ethoxylate (Raseek®) and Ethephon (chloroethyl phosphonic acid) were tested under natural field conditions. Application of Ethephon @ 300 ml per acre at 40 and 70 days prior to harvest (DPH) or Raseek @ 12 ltr per acre at 40 DPH resulted in uniform ripening of coffee berries. Chemical ripeners did not affect fruit or bean characters, biochemical and quality parameters of coffee.
Keywords: coffee; chemical ripener; ethephon; besmonac ethoxylate; uniform ripening
V. V. Radhakrishnan; K. V. Mohanan; Priya P. Menon: Genetic variability in cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 87-89 (2006).
Abstract: Ninety genotypes of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) were evaluated to work out phenotypic and genotypic coefficients of variation (PCV, GCV), heritability and genetic advance (GA). High estimates of PCV, GCV, heritability and GA indicated substantial variability and scope for selection for all the eighteen growth, yield and quality characters studied. The number of capsules per kilogram had the maximum range of performance followed by tiller height and panicle length. The minimum range of performance was observed for volatile oil content indicating the involvement of lower number of contributing alleles in the control of this character and the minimal influence of environmental factors. Broad sense heritability of the characters ranged from 21.99 to 100% with the maximum heritability for volatile oil content followed by percentage of bold capsules. Genetic advance was found to be at maximum for yield per clump followed by total tillers per clump, number of bearing tillers per clump and panicles per clump. This shows that selection of superior genotypes in cardamom can be based on these characters in that order.
Keywords: genetic variability; heritability; genetic advance; Elettaria cardamomum
Jos T. Puthur; V. Krishnakumar: Studies on the role of nutrients and metabolites on flowering of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 90-93 (2006).
Abstract: Changes in essential nutrients (total NPK) and metabolites (total soluble sugars and free amino acids) were studied in the plant parts of Vanilla planifolia associated with flowering, shooting and that devoid of any of these. Along with flowering, an increase in total NPK and metabolites was noticed in different plant parts such as inflorescence peduncle, node bearing inflorescence, node bearing shoot, as compared to node devoid of inflorescence or shoot. Phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were found to be required in higher percentage as compared to nitrogen (N) and the influence of sugars was more prominent than free amino acids for flowering in V. planifolia. The oxygen evolution rate from the leaves bearing inflorescence at the axis was found to be higher than the leaves just above and beneath to it. The nutrient and shade management for vanilla plantation should be programmed in such a way as to ensure proper nutrition and photosynthesis for resulting in optimal flowering of the crop.
Keywords: nutrients; metabolites; vanilla; flowering
Mayukh Sarker; Ananda Mukhopadhyay: Tissue level variation in esterases of red slug caterpillar, Eterusia magnified Butl. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), exposed and unexposed to pesticide spray of tea plantations of Darjeeling plains. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 94-97 (2006).
Abstract: Red slug caterpillar, Eterusia magnifica is a major defoliating pest of tea showing recurrence despite synthetic pesticide applications. In PAGE, general esterases were expressed in nine bands designated Est-1 to Est-9. Out of these, in the whole body homogenate Est-8, and in midgut Est-5 bands were absent. In salivary gland homogenate only two bands, Est-3 and Est-4 were detectable. Caterpillars reared in laboratory on two Tocklai clonal varieties, TV-18 and TV-25 and caterpillars exposed to pesticidal sprays in plantations from Darjeeling plains showed similar banding pattern. The pesticide exposed larvae registered a significantly high quantity of general esterases both in salivary and midgut tissue along with a significantly higher quantity of general esterases both in salivary gland and midgut tissue along with an intense staining of two bands (Est-3 and Est-4) in all the different homogenates, thus suggesting an involvement of these esterase isozymes in pesticide detoxification.
Keywords: Eterusia magnifica; esterases; tea; Darjeeling; pesticide
C. Thamban; A. C. Mathew; S. Arulraj: Field performance of drip irrigation system in coconut gardens. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 98-102 (2006).
Abstract: Field performance of drip irrigation system installed in farmers' field was evaluated to understand the factors associated with proper adoption of technologies and to suggest meaningful interventions for successful implementation of the irrigation system. The study proved that statistical uniformity coefficient of all the plots was maintained in fair and above level. Majority of the farmers provide sufficient (32 litres per palm per day) or even more water to coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and hence water was not a limiting factor in the productivity of the palm. However, proper distribution of the applied water within the root zone of coconut was missing in majority of the gardens. Improper location and lack of sufficient number of dripping points could be attributed to the poor wetted area within the root zone that resulted in the reduced yield. Considerable increase in the revenue could be achieved without much further investment by enhancing the wetted area.
Keywords: statistical uniformity; root zone; drip irrigation; performance evaluation; coconut
M. Karthikeyan; R. Bhaskaran; K. Radhika; S. Mathiyazhagan; R. Sandosskumar; R. Samiyappan; R. Velazhahan: Influence of weather factors on the epidemiology of Ganoderma disease of coconut in Tamil Nadu. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 103-106 (2006).
Abstract: Ganoderma disease of coconut appeared during months of February to August coinciding with high mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature and soil temperature. Weather parameters were correlated with disease development. Significantly positive correlation of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and soil temperature was observed in the prediction of disease development through mutable regression analysis equation; while rainfall, relative humidity and soil moisture are negatively correlated with the disease incidence.
Keywords: Ganoderma disease; coconut; epidemiology
R. G. Khandekar; L. K. Dashora; G. D. Joshi; P. M. Haldankar: Effect of seed treatments on germination and growth of seedlings in nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 107-110 (2006).
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at experimental farm of College of Agriculture, Dapoli, to study effect of seed treatments on germination of nutmeg seed and their further growth during two consecutive years 2002 and 2003. The results showed that cowdung treatment recorded maximum (96.38%) germination when compared to other treatments under study. No germination was observed in concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4) treatment for 5 min. Mechanical treatment also reported low germination (73.45%) as compared to control (No) treatment (83.82%). The mean minimum days for initiation (23.37) and completion (53.60) of germination were also recorded in cowdung treatment. The shoot length and leaf area of nutmeg seedlings obtained by treatments also showed significant differences, at 30th to 180th days after germination (DAG). The mean maximum shoot length (23.31 cm) at 180th DAG was recorded in cow dung treatment, which was significantly superior over control (22.47cm). The mean minimum shoot length (21.86 cm) at 180th DAG was recorded in mechanical scarification treatment. The mean maximum leaf area (363.98 cm2) at 180th DAG was recorded in cow dung treatment which was at par with salt treatment (362.92 cm2) and the mean minimum shoot diameter at 180th DAG (354.30 cm2) was recorded in mechanical treatment.
Keywords: scarification; germination; nutmeg; seed treatment
G. Karthikeyan; S. Karpagavalli; R. Rabindran; C. Natarajan: Integrated disease management of basal stem rot (Ganoderma lucidum) of coconut in Tamil Nadu. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 111-114 (2006).
Abstract: Basal stem rot (BSR) disease of coconut caused by Ganoderma lucidum is a major destructive disease, limiting coconut production in India. The pathogen is a soil borne fungus causing significant damage to the crop. In view of this, greater thrust has been given for integrated disease management that would ensure minimum pesticide load. For the management of this disease, the different components viz., basin method of irrigation; soil application of neem cake and bio-control agents (Trichoderma viride and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and root feeding of fungicide were integrated. From the result it was observed that the combination of basin method of irrigation, soil application of neem cake @ 5 kg/palm, soil application of talc formulations of T. viride and P. fluorescens @ 200 g each/ palm and root feeding of tridemorph 2% @ 100 ml per palm at quarterly intervals gave effective control of vertical spread of pathogen with a reduction of 92.1% over control and horizontal spread with a reduction of 45.5% over control.
Keywords: coconut; basal stem rot; integrated disease management
R. Suseela Bhai; A. I. Bhat; M. Anandaraj: Yellowing and premature bean dropping in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 115-117 (2006).
Abstract: Yellowing and fruit shedding in vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews syn. V. fragrans) due to Fusarium species was reported earlier. The symptom appear in the form of yellow colour at the tip of the beans which slowly extend towards the pedicel and leads to splitting of the beans at the tip followed by brown colouration of the affected portions. In the present study none of the samples showed the presence of Fusarium sp. either in the tissues under microscopic examination or in isolations using different culture media. Similarly no splitting of the bean was noticed in any of the beans affected by yellowing which occurred during February to May months while pollination is in progress. The present work confirmed the involvement of Colletotrichum vanillae in causing yellowing and premature bean dropping of vanilla during stress conditions of high temperature and low humidity. As the disease is found to be associated with airborne fungal infection, spraying fungicides which are found effective under in vitro conditions can be used to manage the disease to a greater extent. The ED90 value was found to be below 50 ppm for carbendazim, while other fungicides (Bordeaux mixture, carbendazim + mancozeb, copper oxychloride, metalaxyl-mancozeb, mancozeb, thiophanate methyl) are effective only at higher concentrations. Among the 20 rhizobacterial isolates tested, IISR 152 and 909 were inhibitory to Colletotrichum vanillae showing an inhibition rate of 87.9 and 73.8%, respectively. Isolates IISR 6, IISR 51, IISR 907, IISR 912 and IISR 915 are also found promising giving an inhibition up to 62 to 69%.
Keywords: Colletotrichum; fungicides; yellowing; bean dropping; Vanilla planifolia
K. V. Kasturi Bai; V. Rajagopal; V. Arunachalam: Assessment of diversity in coconut varieties for drought responsive physiological traits. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 118-120 (2006).
Abstract: An attempt was made to understand (a) the diversity pattern in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties based on the stress sensitive traits such as stomatal resistance (sr), leaf water potential (ψleaf), transpiration rate (E), epicuticular wax content (ECW) and (b) the most important trait contributing to diversity. Observations on the stress sensitive traits were recorded on 22-years-old coconut cultivars/hybrids belonging to eleven Tails, five Dwarfs and seven Hybrids growing under recommended uniform cultural management in rainfed conditions. The results indicated that 23 varieties/hybrids could be classified into 5 major groups based on clustering analysis. Only three dwarf varieties MOD, MYD and GBGD formed a separate cluster.
Keywords: diversity; coconut varieties; drought; physiological traits
G. C. Acharya; D. K. Dash; S. C. Sahoo: Diurnal variations in the mineral composition of coconut leaves. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 121-124 (2006).
Abstract: A study was carried out to estimate the diurnal variations in the leaf mineral content and to find out a suitable time for leaf sampling in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), variety "Sakhigopal Local" under coastal littoral sandy soils of Orissa. The results suggest that the lowest coefficient of variation for N, Ca, Mg, S and Mn content of the index leaf was observed at 1100 hours, where as for iron, the lowest coefficient of variation was observed at 0900 hrs. Phosphorus, magnesium and sulphur content of the index leaf was stable between 0900-1100 hrs. Apart from the elements like N, P, Mg and Zn, there was no significant difference between the nutrient content when analysed at different hours of the day. However, the nutrient content for those four elements remained at par during 0900-1100 hrs. Hence, the period 0900-1100 hours might be considered as the most suitable time for leaf sampling in coconut in littoral sandy soils of Orissa, and which allows the samples to be processed in the afternoon.
Keywords: sampling time; coconut; Sakhigopal Local; diurnal variation
M. Mayilvaganan; C. P. R. Nair: Physico-chemical changes in tender coconut due to Paradasynus rostratus Dist. infestation. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 125-127 (2006).
Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to study the changes in physical characteristics of tender nuts and chemical composition of nut water of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) due to coreid bug (Paradasynus rostratus Dist.) infestation. Twenty-four pairs of 7-months-old nuts, harvested from 18 tagged bunches of coconut palms (variety West Coast Tall) in Kayangulam (Alappuzha) and Chirayinkizh (Thiruvananthapuram) areas of Kerala were studied for the physical characteristics viz., precise area of damage on pericarp, total weight of nut, amount of water, weight of nut without water, weight of solid endosperm (kernel), weight of shell and husk. It is evident from the results that the chemical composition has not been substantially altered qualitatively due to coreid bug damage. However, the quantitative changes in chemical composition were seen mainly due to reduction in amount of water in infested nuts attributed to necrosis and waiting on pericarp. Further, the infestation of coreid bug on young developing buttons of coconut caused substantial loss of water and consequently resulted in quantitative loss of nutrients. As a result of reduced amount of water in infested nuts, the quantity of kernel is reduced during further development of nut.
Keywords: coreid bug; coconut; tender nut water; physical changes; chemical composition
K. M. Mariya John; Deepu Vijayan; R. Sasikumar; M. Saravanan; R. Raj Kumar: Influence of substrates on catechin concentrations of tea crop shoots. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 128-131 (2006).
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to generate data on involvement of substrate on catechin content under controlled conditions using in vitro raised clonal tea shoots and aperiodic shoots of UPASI-3 and UPASI-9 were collected from mother bushes grown at UPASI TRF Experimental Farm. 3-months-old single nodal cuttings which contained three to four well expanded leaves were collected and processed for catechin quantification by using high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). The standard catechin fractions, (−)-epicatechin galate (ECG), (−)-epigallo catechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin (EC), (−)-epigallo catechin gallate (EGCG) and (+)-catechin procured from Sigma-Aldrich, USA were used for spike test. Relative distribution of these constituents was expressed as percentage according to ISO specification (ISO/CD 14502-2). The value of total catechins was significantly higher when the nodal cuttings were incubated with shikimic acid, followed by gallic acid and tyrosine. Tea leaves collected from untreated control vials registered significantly lower quantities of catechin content, irrespective of the clones. Between the clones tried, "Assam" cultivar, UPASI-3 registered significantly higher values of catechin content followed by UPASI-9 ("China" jat).
Keywords: Camellia sinensis; catechins; (-)-epicatechin; (-)-epigallo catechin; (-)-epigallo catechin gallate epicatechin gallate
J. D. Nirmalatha; J. E. Adeline Vinila; J. Prem Joshua; C. Gailce Leo Justin; M. Jayasekhar: Effect of intercropping Mucuna pruriens and Andrographis paniculata and FYM in young rubber plantations. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 132-134 (2006).
Abstract: A field trial was conducted at the experimental farm at Horticultural Research Station, Pechiparai to evaluate the performance of M. pruriens and A. paniculata as intercrop in young rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in Kanyakumari district. M. pruriens and A. paniculata was raised as intercrop in 1-year-old young rubber plantations during March 2002 in an espacement of 60 × 30 cm and 30 × 30 cm. Budded plants of rubber were planted at a distance of 6.5 × 6.5 m during March 2001. Application of farmyard manure and mixed planting of M. pruriens and A. paniculata in the spaces influenced the growth of rubber. An increase in the girth of rubber from the initial stage to the second year after the treatment viz., FYM and intercropping was observed. The increase in girth of rubber was the highest with basal application of 20 t FYM/ha (76.8%), where it increased from 5.9 cm to 13.34 cm at the end of 2 years. However, the increase in girth of rubber in control group was 54.09%.
Keywords: rubber plantations; intercropping; Mucuna; Andrographis
A. S. Borah; A. K. Ray; H. P. Maheswarappa; P. Subramanian; V. Krishnakumar; I. Barman: Effect of soil and water conservation measures on growth and yield of arecanut under sloppy terrain of Assam. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 135-137 (2006).
Abstract: Two experiments in randomized block design with three replications were conducted in farmer's field in the village Lalmati under Rani Development Block of Kamrup district of Assam, to study the effect of different soil and water conservation measures on the performance of arecanut (Areca catechu Linn.) seedlings and bearing palms. The arecanut seedlings were transplanted in the month of March, 2003 and the different soil and water conservation structures were made during April 2003. Each treatment, comprised of five soil and water conservation measures and one control, and of 12 seedlings. The morphological data of the experimental seedlings were recorded at the time of transplanting and later one and two years after treatment imposition.
Keywords: arecanut; growth and yield; sloppy terrain; soil conservation
N. M. Nayar: Book review: Seidemann, J. (2005): WORLD SPICE PLANTS: ECONOMIC USAGE, BOTANY, TAXONOMY; viii + 591 pp. Hardcover. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York; ISBN-10: 3-540-22279-0, ISBN-13: 978-3-540-22279-8. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 138-139 (2006).
R. D. Iyer: Book review: Basil G.D. Bartley (2005): THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CACAO AND ITS UTILIZATION - BOTANY, PRODUCTION AND USES, 341 pp., 32 colour plates. Hardbound, ISBN 0-85199-619-1, 136 ref., URL: http://www.cabin/publishing.org/bookshop. CABI Publishing, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX 10 8DE, United Kingdom. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 140-144 (2006).
Articles accepted for Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(3), December 2006. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 145 (2006).
Abstract: The issue of Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(3) comprise the articles accepted for presentation in the forthcoming 17th National Symposium on Plantation Crops (PLACROSYM XVII) to be held during December 5-8, 2006 at Kochi
Journal of Plantation Crops, Guidelines for authors. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 146-147 (2006).
Statement of ownership and other particulars about Journal of Plantation Crops. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 34(2): p. 148 (2006).