Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32, issue no. 3 (2004)
Publisher: Indian Society for Plantation Crops, Kasaragod - 670 124, Kerala, India
table of contents
R. Manimekalai; K. Jeya Dev; Anuradha Upadhyay; K. Devakumar; M. K. Rajesh; V. A. Parthasarathy; V. Rajagopal; P. M. Kumaran: Optimization of DNA amplification fingerprinting parameters in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 1-5 (2004).
Abstract: DNA Amplification Fingerprinting (DAF) is a simple and powerful technique for genome analysis. It is being employed in various applications in a number of crops. For obtaining reproducible results from DAF technique, optimization of PCR parameters was done. 20 ng (2 ng/µl) template DNA, 15 µM primer, 250 µM each of dNTPs, 2 U (0.2 U/µl) Taq polymerase, 4 mM MgCl2, and annealing temperature of 55°C, with standard silver staining protocol gave good amplification with reproducibility. Subsequently these results will be used in tagging resistance genes for root (wilt) disease in coconut. The effect of GC content of primers was also discussed.
Keywords: coconut; DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF); optimization,
V. C. Mercykutty; Joseph G. Marattukalam; C. K. Saraswathyamma: Young budding in Hevea - nursery evaluation. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 6-10 (2004).
Abstract: An attempt was made for comparing young budding with the conventional method of green budding. Treatment consisted of bud grafting on stocks at the age of 6, 7 & 8 weeks after planting the sprouted seeds in small polybags. The study was conducted during three consecutive years. Higher percentage of buddable stock was available for young budding purpose at a time compared to availability of buddable stocks for green budding. Budding success on 8-weeks-old stocks was comparable with that of green budding. Seven months after the stock plants were cut back, difference in scion growth in young and green buddings was significant except for diameter. However, before the 1st whorl of leaves matured, higher percentage of die-back of the scion shoots was noted in young buddings, whereas die-back was low in green buddings resulting in more recovery of usable bag plants. The recovered young budded plants were become ready for field planting by the month of February. The feasibility of young budding under Indian and Malaysian conditions is also discussed.
Keywords: young budding; green budding; Hevea; non buddable plants; ground nursery
V. G. Jayalekshmy; R. S. John: Nut component analysis in cashew. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 11-14 (2004).
Abstract: A study was conducted at Cashew Research Station Madakkathara to analyse the nut component characters in 19 cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) genotypes. Wide variability as indicated by the greater coefficient of variation in several nut and kernel characters responsible for the bold nut was found to exist in these genotypes. Nut weight had significant positive correlation with nut length, breadth, thickness and volume. In the non-hierarchical Euclidean cluster analysis based on 10 nut characters, genotypes were grouped under five clusters. Cluster II with Priyanka and K 30-1 and cluster V with M44/3, Mdk-1 and V5 were the farthest. The members of these two clusters can be used for hybridisation to obtain maximum heterosis for nut characters. K 30-1 was found to be a unique variety, which can transfer bold nut character to its offspring.
Keywords: nut component-variability-divergence; cashew
P. M. Haldankar; S. B. Deshpande; V. G. Chavan; B. R. Patil; G. D. Joshi; N. D. Jambhale: Weather association of flowering pattern and sex expression in cashew. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 15-19 (2004).
Abstract: An attempt was made to study the association of different weather components viz., temperature, humidity, rainfall and rainy days with flowering pattern of male and hermaphrodite flowers during 1995 to 1999 in three cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) varieties. The weather parameters prevailing eight weeks before actual opening of flowers determine the sex ratio and flowering pattern in cashew nut. Early cessation of rainfall resulted in early flowering. The delayed rainfall up to November resulted in extended flowering span. The prolonged rainfall also resulted in reduced total number of flowers in cashew.
Keywords: cashew nut; weather parameters; flowering pattern; sex ratio
A. Manohar Rao; P. Venkata Rao; Y. Narayana Reddy: Evaluation of turmeric cultivars for growth, yield and quality characters. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 20-25 (2004).
Abstract: 54 turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivars collected from various parts of country were evaluated for growth, yield and quality characters at Jagtial, Andhra Pradesh. Significant variation was noted for all the characters studied. Based on the crop duration, 18 cultivars each were grouped under short, medium and long duration, respectively. Among the different duration groups, PTS-38 and Duggirala in long duration, CLI-317 in medium duration and PCT-13 in short duration recorded more cured yield. To have a judicial combination of yield and curcumin content, PTS-38 in long duration, CLI-317 in medium duration and PCT-13 in short duration were found to be promising for Andhra Pradesh. In correlation studies, crop duration had shown positive correlation with curing percentage and cured yield but it had shown negative correlation with quality characters viz., curcumin content, oleoresins and essential oils.
Keywords: turmeric; evaluation; cultivars; curcumin; oleoresin; essential oil
R. Dhanapal; H. P. Maheswarappa; C. V. Sairam; P. Subramanian; A. K. Upadhyay: Influence of drip irrigation on growth and yield of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in laterite soil. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 26-30 (2004).
Abstract: A field experiment on drip irrigation for West Coast Tall (WCT) coconut was conducted in laterite soil at Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod (Kerala, India) to study the drip irrigation requirement and its influence on growth and yield. The treatments included were three levels of drip irrigation (at 33, 66 and 100% E0 daily), basin irrigation (100% E0) and rainfed control. The experimental results revealed that annual leaf production and leaf nutrient status (N and K) of coconut palm was significantly higher in the irrigated treatments compared to the rainfed control. The female flower production and nut yield with 66% of E0 was on par with 100% of E0 through drip and 100% of E0 through basin irrigation. Drip irrigation equal to 66% of open pan evaporation (E0) proved to be economically efficient method of irrigation with water saving of 34% compared to 100% of E0 through basin and drip methods.
Keywords: coconut; West Coast Tall; drip irrigation; growth; female flower; nut yield
J. K. Hore; A. Bandopadhyay; D. K. Ghosh: Performance of Colocasia genotypes as intercrop in coconut garden. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 31-34 (2004).
Abstract: Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of six Colocasia genotypes grown as intercrop in an 18-years-old coconut (cv. ECT) garden, during 1998-2000, and to study the effect of intercrop on the main crop. Among the genotypes, C-62 exhibited the maximum length of main sucker (113.24 cm) but Nadia Local recorded the maximum girth (20.91 cm). However, maximum number of side suckers (7.26) and longest leaf (41.61 cm) were noted in Kadma Local. Jhankri produced maximum number of cormel (29.4) per plant. Highest cormel weight (523.39 g) per plant was recorded in Nadia Local. Maximum projected yield of cormel was observed in Nadia Local (13.35 t/ha) followed by BCC-23 (12.29 t/ha) and Jhankri (11.85 t/ha). The results revealed that Colocasia can successfully be grown as intercrop in coconut garden with yield increase in coconut up to 27.40% in the third year and average additional income of Rs. 13,510/- per hectare. 'Nadia Local', 'BCC-23' and 'Jhankri' were found suitable as intercrop in coconut plantation.
Keywords: coconut; colocasia; intercrop; genotype; kachu; taro
S. Senthil; S. Gunasekharan; M. R. Chandra Mouli: Effect of plant density on yield and economic returns of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze). Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 35-37 (2004).
Abstract: Field trials were carried out with tea planted at three different densities (17500, 25000 and 35000 plants per ha) in the tea growing areas of Nilgiri-Wynad and Anamalais, south India, both in new planting and re-planting. The trials have completed 10 and 12 years, respectively. In the trial at Nilgiri-Wynad, high and medium density planting recorded significantly higher yield than low density planting during early part of the experiment, up to 1997 (sixth year) from planting. Medium density recorded higher net returns (Rs. 1,05,565) with lower pay back period of 5.9 years. In the Anamalais, yields from high and medium density planting were significantly higher than lower density, through out the experiment. The net returns were higher for high density planting (Rs. 59,987) in Anamalais under replanting conditions. However, the pay back period was shorter for medium density planting (7.4 years) than low and high density planting. Based on yield and financial analysis, the plant population can be increased from the present recommendation of 17500 to 25000 plants per ha for early and sustainable returns.
Keywords: tea; plant density; financial analysis; new planting; re-planting
Sheeba Rebecca Isaac; M. Achuthan Nair; V. K. Venugopal: Nutrient dynamics of decomposing cashew leaf litter in open and shaded sites. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 38-43 (2004).
Abstract: The nutrient dynamics in decomposing cashew leaf litter were examined in the warm humid tropics of southern Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala under open and shaded conditions. The pattern of change in residual litter varied with the element but the trend remained similar for each nutrient at both sites. Nitrogen and phosphorus showed temporary phases of immobilization while potassium and magnesium contents declined as decay progressed. Calcium revealed accumulation in the residual litter. The absolute amounts of the nutrients declined relative to the decrease in the biomass with decomposition. Nutrient mobility at the two sites followed the order K > N / Mg > P > Ca. The amount of nutrients remaining in litter at the end of 95% decay was negligible bringing to light the use of cashew leaf litter as a nutrient source in crop production.
Keywords: immobilization; litter decay; mineralization; nutrient dynamics; release pattern
A. Sujatha; S. P. Singh: Seasonal variation in the population of coconut leaf eating caterpillar, Opisina arenosella Walker in Karnataka. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 44-48 (2004).
Abstract: A systematic surveillance of coconut leaf-eating caterpillar, Opisina arenosella was taken up on coconut seedlings, young and adult palms in coastal and interior areas of Karnataka during 1996-1997, in order to provide ecological basis for future control measures by carrying out studies on the magnitude of pest abundance and seasonal fluctuation. In the coast, the population of O. arenosella reached its peak during summer, whereas in the interior it was high during post-monsoon, winter and rainy seasons. At the coast, mean maximum temperature was significantly positively correlated and both relative humidity and rainfall were significantly negatively correlated with pest population on all ages of palms. But in interior area, correlation between the population of O. arenosella and abiotic factors showed variation among seedling, young and adult palms.
Keywords: coconut; Karnataka; Opisina arenosella population; seasonal variation
R. Selvasundaram; R. Sasidhar; R. Sanjay; N. Muraleedharan: Seasonal abundance of thrips and crop loss in tea. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 49-52 (2004).
Abstract: Seasonal abundance of the tea infesting thrips, Scirtothrips bispinosus (Bagnall) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was studied at Vandiperiyar, Idukki district, Kerala. Population density of thrips on tea shoots was high during the months from December to April. Heavy rainfall, low temperature and low relative humidity adversely affected the populations of thrips. Fields in the second and third years of the four year pruning cycle harboured more number of thrips. Infestation by thrips resulted in 11 to 17% loss in crop. The economic threshold level (ETL) for this pest was three thrips per tea shoot.
Keywords: thrips; seasonal abundance; crop loss; ETL; tea
D. R. Babu Reddy: Analysis on cost of production of Arabica coffee in Coorg region, India. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 53-57 (2004).
Abstract: A study was taken up to estimate the cost of production of arabica coffee in Coorg region of Karnataka state covering a total of 31 estates by adopting multistage random sampling method. The results of the analysis indicated that the average total cost of cultivation of arabica coffee was Rs. 52.475/ha which translated into a cost of production of Rs. 42 per kg for an average yield realization of 1,250 kg/ha. Among the total cost, labour wages alone accounted for average yield realization of 1,250 kg/ha. Among the total cost, labour wages alone accounted for 54% (435 man-days per ha) followed by input cost (3.5%) and overhead expenditure (11%). The cost of cultivation per hectare increased as size of holding, with Rs. 46,640, Rs. 55,020 and Rs. 55,445 for the category of less than 4 ha, 4 to 10 ha and more than 10 ha holding groups, respectively. The unit cost of production at total cost is low in less than 4 ha holding group with Rs. 41 per kg compared to Rs. 43 per kg in 4 to 10 ha and in more than 10 ha category of holding groups. This was mainly due to higher overhead expenditure as size of holding increased and varied yields realized.
Keywords: Arabica; costs of production
P. D. Sreekanth; N. Yadukumar; M. Gangadhara Nayak: Cashew yield forecasting under different planting densities. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 58-63 (2004).
Abstract: An attempt was made to predict cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) yield using explanatory (independent) variables viz., light interception, ground coverage and plant age under different density of plantings viz., low (normal) (156 trees per ha), medium (278 trees per ha) and high (625 trees per ha) using four methods (regression models) viz., linear, logarithmic, power and exponential. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive correlations between yield and light interception; ground coverage by canopy and plant age under both normal and medium density plantings. However, no significant relation was found for above variables under high density planting. Light interception as explanatory variable can be used in exponential model (y = 25.3 × e00361x: R2 = 84) in case of normal density and linear models (y = 25.408 x − 1357.3: R2 = 0.89 in case of medium density) to predict cashew yield. Ground coverage by canopy as explanatory variable also can be used estimate cashew yield using linear (y = 7.4801 x − 115.67: R2 = 0.83 in case of normal density; y = 14.717 x − 666.86: R2 = 0.80 in case of medium density), whereas, plant age as explanatory variable can be used in linear (y = 37.929 x − 64.643: R2 = 0.85 in case of normal density; y = 70.571 x − 246.57: R2 = 0.87 in case of medium density) to estimate cashew yields precisely. The multiple regression analysis using all variables together did not improve coefficient of determination. For high-density plantings, satisfactory yield prediction was not possible with same variables either by multiple regression or non-linear models. Applicability of these variables under different densities is discussed.
Keywords: plant density; light interception; ground coverage by canopy; plant age; yield of cashew
N. Namasivayam; V. Richard Paul: Trend analysis of coconut production in India. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 64-67 (2004).
Abstract: The paper attempts to estimate trend in area, production and productivity of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in India for the period of 1977-78 to 2001-2002. The analysis is based on the data for the last 25 years. The entire analysis was done separately in three phases for the overall period under study: 1977-78 to 1986-87 is I phase, 1987-88 to 1996-97 is II phase and 1997-98 to 2001-2002 is III phase. The index number revealed the area, production and productivity of coconut in the period. The trend in growth rate analysis reveals that the growths in area, production and productivity over the years were positive in the first two periods while in the third period, productivity is negative. On the basis of fitted trend, future area, production and productivity has been predicted.
Keywords: coconut; trend analysis; India; area; production; productivity
S. Jayasekhar; C. T. Jose; C. V. Sairam: An economic analysis of temporal price instability and supply response in arecanut. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 68-71 (2004).
Abstract: The present study is partly a methodological attempt where a non-parametric regression frame was used to analyze the time series data on arecanut. Sudden change/shift points were observed in price, area and production data of arecanut by fitting kernel weighed local linear regression with dummy variables for shift. The data has been classified into different periods based on the shift points. The differential growth rates and trends in various periods are substantiated based on available literature, observations and assumptions. Three shift points (four periods) were observed in price data, two shift points (three periods) in area and one shift point (two periods) in production and productivity. Although the prices were stable after the drastic fail in 1972-73, from mid-eighties onwards, frequent price fluctuations were observed. Commercialization of arecanut trade made the marketing system highly complicated and conducive for the trade manipulations. The price instability revealed in the irregular time series component proved the poor market intelligence in arecanut trade.
Keywords: arecanut; non parametric regression; price instability; shift points
P. Anithakumari; J. J. Solomon; S. Manoj: Participatory demonstration of integrated root (wilt) disease management practices in farmers' gardens - an impact study. Journal of Plantation Crops Vol. 32(3): p. 72-76 (2004).
Abstract: Integrated root (wilt) disease management practices are recommended by CPCRI for improving the health and productivity of coconut palms in root (wilt) affected areas. The recommended practices were adopted in 25 ha plots of 208 coconut farmers consisting of 5000 palms during 1999-2000 to 2002-2003. The result was demonstrated in a participatory mode involving farmers, members of households, farm women, scientists, extension workers and local leaders. The impact analysis indicated a remarkable reduction in root (wilt) disease intensity with an increase in average yield from 24.17 to 46.30 nuts per palm/year, i.e. 91.4% increase. The B:C ratio improved from 1.03 to 1.77. Leaf rot disease found to be superimposed in root (wilt) affected palms could be managed very effectively (47.9% to 1.5% incidence). Effectiveness of rhinoceros beetle control and eriophyid mite management was also recorded. The technology demonstration was done with an appropriate extension methodology support. PRA techniques, recording of individual palm profile, informal group meetings, scientist-farmer interaction, research station visit, method demonstration/training programmes for knowledge and skill upgradation were the major extension components adopted.
Keywords: farmer participatory demonstration; root (wilt) management practices; impact analysis