Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

 

1901
Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Netherlands, 1852-08-30 - 1911-03-01)
Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and of the osmotic pressure in solutions
1902
Emil H. Fischer (Germany, 1852-10-09 - 1919-07-15)
Synthetic studies in the area of sugar and purine groups
1903
Svante A. Arrhenius (Sweden, 1859-02-19 - 1927-10-02)
Theory of electrolytic dissociation
1904
Sir William Ramsay (United Kingdom, 1852-10-02 - 1916-07-23)
Discovery of the indifferent gaseous elements in air (noble gases)
1905
Adolf von Baeyer (Germany, 1835-10-31 - 1917-08-20)
Organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds
1906
Henri Moissan (France, 1852-09-28 - 1907-02-20)
Investigation and isolation of the element fluorine
1907
Eduard Buchner (Germany, 1860-05-20 - 1917-08-13)
Biochemical studies, discovery of fermentation without cells
1908
Sir Ernest Rutherford (United Kingdom, 1871-08-30 - 1937-10-19)
Decay of the elements, chemistry of radioactive substances
1909
Wilhelm Ostwald (Germany, 1853-09-02 - 1932-04-04)
Catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction rates
1910
Otto Wallach (Germany, 1847-03-27 - 1931-02-26)
Alicyclic compounds
1911
Marie Curie (France, Poland, 1867-11-07 - 1934-07-04)
Discovery of radium and polonium
1912
Victor Grignard (France, 1871-05-16 - 1935-12-13)
Grignard's reagent
Paul Sabatier (France, 1854-11-05 - 1941-08-14)
Hydrogenation of organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals
1913
Alfred Werner (Switzerland, 1866-12-12 - 1919-11-15)
Bonding relations of atoms in molecules (inorganic chemistry)
1914
Theodore W. Richards (USA, 1868-01-31 - 1928-04-02)
Determination of atomic weights
1915
Richard Willstätter (Germany, 1872-08-13 - 1942-08-03)
Investigation of plant pigments, particularly of chlorophyll
1916 -
1917 -
1918
Fritz Haber (Germany, 1868-12-09 - 1934-01-29)
Synthesis of ammonia from its elements
1919 -
1920
Walther H. Nernst (Germany, 1864-06-25 - 1941-11-18)
Studies on thermodynamics
1921
Frederick Soddy (United Kingdom, 1877-09-02 - 1956-09-22)
Chemistry of radioactive substances, occurrence and nature of the isotopes
1922
Francis W. Aston (United Kingdom, 1877-09-01 - 1945-11-20)
Discovery of a large number of isotopes, mass spectrograph
1923
Fritz Pregl (Austria, 1869-09-03 - 1930-12-13)
Microanalysis of organic compounds
1924 -
1925
Richard A. Zsigmondy (Germany, Austria, 1865-04-01 - 1929-09-29)
Colloid chemistry (ultramicroscope)
1926
Theodor Svedberg (Sweden, 1884-08-30 - 1971-02-26)
Disperse systems (ultracentrifuge)
1927
Heinrich O. Wieland (Germany, 1877-06-04 - 1957-08-05)
Constitution of bile acids
1928
Adolf Windaus (Germany, 1876-12-25 - 1959-06-09)
Study of sterols and their relation with vitamins (vitamin D)
1929
Hans von Euler-Chelpin (Sweden, Germany, 1873-02-15 - 1964-11-06)
Arthur Harden (United Kingdom, 1861-10-12 - 1940-06-17)
Studies on fermentation of sugars and enzymes
1930
Hans Fischer (Germany, 1881-07-27 - 1945-03-31)
Studies on blood and plant pigments, synthesis of hemin
1931
Friedrich Bergius (Germany, 1884-10-11 - 1949-03-30)
Carl Bosch (Germany, 1874-08-27 - 1940-04-26)
Development of chemical high-pressure processes
1932
Irving Langmuir (USA, 1881-01-31 - 1957-08-16)
Surface chemistry
1933 -
1934
Harold C. Urey (USA, 1893-04-29 - 1981-01-06)
Discovery of heavy hydrogen (deuterium)
1935
Frédéric Joliot (France, 1900-03-19 - 1958-08-14)
Irène Joliot-Curie (France, 1897-09-12 - 1956-03-17)
Syntheses of new radioactive elements (artificial radioactivity)
1936
Peter J. W. Debye (Germany, Netherlands, 1884-03-24 - 1966-11-02)
Studies on dipole moments and the diffraction of X rays and electron beams by gases
1937
Sir Walter N. Haworth (United Kingdom, 1883-03-19 - 1950-03-19)
Studies on carbohydrates and vitamin C
Paul Karrer (Switzerland, 1889-04-21 - 1971-06-18)
Studies on carotenoids and flavins and vitamins A and B2
1938
Richard Kuhn (Germany, 1900-12-03 - 1967-07-31)
Studies on carotenoids and vitamins
1939
Adolf F. J. Butenandt (Germany, 1903-03-24 - 1995-01-18)
Studies on sexual hormones
Leopold Ruzicka (Switzerland, 1887-09-13 - 1976-09-26)
Studies on polymethylenes and higher terpenes
1940 -
1941 -
1942 -
1943
George de Hevesy (Hungary, 1885-08-01 - 1966-07-05)
Application of isotopes as indicators in the investigation chemical processes
1944
Otto Hahn (Germany, 1879-03-08 - 1968-07-28)
Discovery of the nuclear fission of atoms
1945
Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland, 1895-01-15 - 1973-11-11)
Discoveries in the area of agricultural and food chemistry, method of preservation of fodder
1946
John H. Northrop (USA, 1891-07-05 - 1987-05-27)
Wendell M. Stanley (USA, 1904-08-16 - 1971-06-15)
Preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form
James B. Sumner (USA, 1887-11-19 - 1955-08-12)
Crystallizability of enzymes
1947
Sir Robert Robinson (United Kingdom, 1886-09-13 - 1975-02-08)
Studies on alkaloids
1948
Arne W. K. Tiselius (Sweden, 1902-08-10 - 1971-10-29)
Analysis by means of electrophoresis and adsorption, discoveries about serum proteins
1949
William F. Giauque (USA, 1895-05-12 - 1982-03-28)
Contributions to chemical thermodynamics, properties at extremely low temperatures (adiabatic demagnetization)
1950
Kurt Alder (Germany, 1902-07-10 - 1958-06-20)
Otto P. H. Diels (Germany, 1876-01-23 - 1954-03-07)
Development of the diene synthesis
1951
Edwin M. McMillan (USA, *1907-09-18)
Glenn Th. Seaborg (USA, 1912-04-19 - 1999-02-25)
Discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements
1952
Archer J. P. Martin (United Kingdom, *1910-03-01)
Richard L. M. Synge (United Kingdom, 1914-10-28 - 1994-08-18)
Invention of distribution chromatography
1953
Hermann Staudinger (Germany, 1881-03-23 - 1965-09-08)
Discoveries in the area of macromolecular chemistry
1954
Linus Carl Pauling (USA, 1901-02-28 - 1994-08-19)
Studies on the nature of the chemical bond (molecular structure of proteins)
1955
Vincent du Vigneaud (USA, 1901-05-18 - 1978-12-11)
Synthesis of a polypeptide hormone
1956
Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood (United Kingdom, 1897-06-19 - 1967-10-09)
Nikolai N. Semjonow (Soviet Union, 1896-04-15 - 1986-09-25)
Mechanisms of chemical reactions
1957
Sir Alexander R. Todd (United Kingdom, *1907-07-02)
Studies on nucleotides and their coenzymes
1958
Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, *1918-08-13)
Structure of proteins, especially of insulin
1959
Jaroslav Heyrovský (Czechoslovakia, 1890-12-20 - 1967-03-27)
Polarography
1960
Willard F. Libby (USA, 1908-12-17 - 1980-09-08)
Application of carbon 14 for age determinations (radiocarbon dating)
1961
Melvin Calvin (USA, *1911-04-07)
Studies on the assimilation of carbonic acid by plants (photosynthesis)
1962
John Cowdery Kendrew (United Kingdom, *1917-03-24)
Max Ferdinand Perutz (United Kingdom, Austria, 1914-05-19 - 2002-02-06)
Studies on the structures of globulin proteins
1963
Giulio Natta (Italy, 1903-02-26 - 1979-05-02)
Karl Ziegler (Germany, 1898-11-26 - 1973-08-11)
Chemistry and technology of high polymers
1964
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (United Kingdom, *1910-05-12)
Structure determination of biologically important substances by means of X rays
1965
Robert Burns Woodward (USA, 1917-04-10 - 1979-07-08)
Syntheses of natural products
1966
Robert S. Mulliken (USA, 1896-06-07 - 1986-10-31)
Studies on chemical bonds and the electron structure of molecules by means of the orbital method
1967
Manfred Eigen (Germany, *1927-05-09)
George Porter (United Kingdom, *1920-12-06)
Ronald G. W. Norrish (United Kingdom, 1897-11-09 - 1978-06-07)
Investigations of extremely fast chemical reactions
1968
Lars Onsager (USA, Norway, 1903-11-27 - 1976-10-05)
Studies on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
1969
Odd Hassel (Norway, 1897-05-17 - 1981-05-13)
Derek H. Barton (United Kingdom, *1918-09-08)
Development of the concept of conformation
1970
Luis F. Leloir (Argentina, *1906-09-06)
Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
1971
Gerhard Herzberg (Canada, 1904-12-25 - 1999-03-03)
Electron structure and geometry of molecules, particularly of free radicals (molecular spectroscopy)
1972
Christian B. Anfinsen (USA, *1916-03-26)
Studies on ribonuclease
Stanford Moore (USA, 1913-09-04 - 1982-08-23)
William H. Stein (USA, 1911-06-25 - 1980-02-02)
Studies on the active center of ribonuclease
1973
Ernst Otto Fischer (Germany, *1918-11-10)
Geoffrey Wilkinson (United Kingdom, 1921-07-14 - 1996-09-26)
Chemistry of metal-organic sandwich compounds
1974
Paul J. Flory (USA, 1910-06-19 - 1985-09-09)
Physical chemistry of macromolecules
1975
John W. Cornforth (United Kingdom, *1917-09-07)
Stereochemistry of enzyme catalysis reactions
Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland, Yugoslavia, 1906-07-23 - 1998-01-07)
Studies on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions
1976
William N. Lipscomb (USA, *1919-12-09)
Structure of boranes
1977
Ilya Prigogine (Belgium, 1917-01-25 - 2003-05-28)
Contributions to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, particularly to the theory of dissipative structures
1978
Peter D. Mitchell (United Kingdom, *1920-09-29)
Studies of biological energy transfer, development of the chemiosmotic theory
1979
Georg Wittig (Germany, 1897-06-16 - 1987-08-26)
Herbert C. Brown (USA, 1912-05-22 - 2004-12-19)
Development of (organic) boron and phosphorous compounds
1980
Paul Berg (USA, *1926-06-30)
Studies on the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly hybrid DNA (technology of gene surgery)
Walter Gilbert (USA, *1932-03-21)
Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, 1918-08-13)
Determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
1981
Kenichi Fukui (Japan, *1918-10-04)
Roald Hoffmann (USA, *1937-07-18)
Theories on the progress of chemical reactions (frontier orbital theory)
1982
Aaron Klug (United Kingdom, *1926-08-11)
Development of crystallographic methods for the elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid protein complexes
1983
Henry Taube (Canada, *1915-11-30)
Reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially with metal complexes
1984
Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA, 1921-07-15 - 2006-05-14)
Method for the preparation of peptides and proteins
1985
Herbert A. Hauptman (USA, *1917-02-14)
Jerome Karle (USA, *1918-06-18)
Development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
1986
John C. Polanyi (Canada, *1929-01-23)
Dudley R. Herschbach (USA, *1932-06-18)
Yuan Tseh Lee (USA, *1936-11-29)
Dynamics of chemical elementary processes
1987
Donald J. Cram (USA, 1919-04-22 - 2001-06-27)
Charles J. Pedersen (USA, 1904-10-03 - 1989-10-26)
Jean-Marie Lehn (France, *1939-09-30)
Development of molecules with structurally specific interaction of high selectivity
1988
Johann Deisenhofer (Germany, *1943-09-30)
Robert Huber (Germany, *1937-02-20)
Hartmut Michel (Germany, *1948-07-18)
Determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center
1989
Sidney Altman (Canada, *1939-05-08)
Thomas Robert Cech (USA, *1947-12-08)
Discovery of the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acid (RNA)
1990
Elias James Corey (USA, *1928-07-12)
Development of novel methods for the synthesis of complex natural compounds (retrosynthetic analysis)
1991
Richard Robert Ernst (Switzerland, *1933-08-14)
Development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)
1992
Rudolph A. Marcus (USA, *1923)
Theories of electron transfer
1993
Kary Banks Mullis (USA, *1944)
Invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Michael Smith (Canada, *1932)
Development of site specific mutagenesis
1994
George A. Olah (USA, *1927)
Carbocations
1995
Paul Crutzen (Netherlands, *1933)
Mario Molina (Mexico, *1943)
Frank Sherwood Rowland (USA, *1927)
for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone
1996
Robert F. Curl, Jr. (USA, *1933)
Sir Harold W. Kroto (United Kingdom, *1939)
Richard E. Smalley (USA, *1943)
for their discovery of fullerenes
1997
Paul D. Boyer (USA, *1918)
John E. Walker (United Kingdom, *1941)
for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Jens C. Skou (Denmark, *1918)
for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase
1998
Walter Kohn (USA, *1923)
John A. Pople (United Kingdom/USA, 1925 - 2004)
to Walter Kohn for his development of the density-functional theory and to John Pople for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry (GAUSSIAN computer programs)
1999
Ahmed H. Zewail (USA, Egypt, *1946)
for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy
2000
Alan J. Heeger (USA, *1936)
Alan G. MacDiarmid (USA, *1927)
Hideki Shirakawa (Japan, *1936)
for the discovery and development of conductive polymers
2001
William S. Knowles (USA, *1917)
Ryoji Noyori (Japan, *1938)
for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions
K. Barry Sharpless (USA, *1941)
for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions
2002
John B. Fenn (USA, *1917)
Koichi Tanaka (Japan, *1959)
for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules
Kurt Wüthrich (Switzerland, *1938)
for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution
2003
Peter Agre (USA, *1949)
for the discovery of water channels in cell membranes
Roderick MacKinnon (USA, *1956)
for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels in cell membranes
2004
Aaron Ciechanover (Israel, *1947)
Avram Hershko (Israel, *1937)
Irwin Rose (USA, *1926)
for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
2005
Yves Chauvin (France, *1930)
Robert H. Grubbs (USA, *1942)
Richard R. Schrock (USA, *1945)
for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis
2006
Roger D. Kornberg (USA, *1947)
for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
2007
Gerhard Ertl (Germany, *1936)
(Fritz-Haber-Institut of Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin, Honorary Professor at Freie Universität Berlin and at Technische Universität Berlin)
for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces (catalysis)
2008
Osamu Shimomura (USA, *1928)
Martin Chalfie (USA, *1947)
Roger Y. Tsien (USA, *1952)
for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (United Kingdom, *1952 in India)
Thomas A. Steitz (USA, *1940)
Ada E. Yonath (Israel, *1939)
for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
2010
Richard F. Heck (USA, *1931)
Ei-ichi Negishi (China, *1935)
Akira Suzuki (Japan, *1930)
for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis
2011
Dan Shechtman (Israel, *1941)
for the discovery of quasicrystals
2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz (USA, *1943)
Brian K. Kobilka (USA, *1955)
for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
2013
Martin Karplus (Austria, USA, *1930)
Michael Levitt (South Africa, USA, *1947)
Arieh Warshel (Israel, USA, *1940)
for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
2014
Eric Betzig (USA, *1960)
Stefan W. Hell (Germany, *1962 in Romania)
William E. Moerner, "W.E." (USA, *1953)
for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy

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Burkhard Kirste, 1995-08-02, 2014-10-09